One primary agenda of the developmental evolution field is to elucidate molecular mechanisms governing differences in animal form. While mounting evidence has established an important role for mutations in transcription controlling cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the underlying mechanisms that translate these alterations into differences in gene expression are poorly understood. Emerging studies focused on pigmentation differences among closely related Drosophila species have provided many examples of phenotypically relevant CRE changes, and have begun to illuminate how this process works at the level of regulatory sequence function and transcription factor binding. We review recent work in this field and highlight the conceptual and technical challenges that currently await experimental attention.
Mark Rebeiz and Thomas M. Williams
Volume 19, February 2017, Pages 1–7