Yang Liu, Mark Rebeiz, and company published a paper in Current Biology detailing the genetic events responsible for the evolution of a fruit fly color trait. Spoiler, lots of cis-regulatory evolution involved.

2019 Jul 8;29(13):2157-2166.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.074. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Changes throughout a Genetic Network Mask the Contribution of Hox Gene Evolution.

Abstract

Hox genes pattern the anterior-posterior axis of animals and are posited to drive animal body plan evolution, yet their precise role in evolution has been difficult to determine. Here, we identified evolutionary modifications in the Hox gene Abd-B that dramatically altered its expression along the body plan of Drosophila santomea. Abd-B is required for pigmentation in Drosophila yakuba, the sister species of D. santomea, and changes to Abd-B expression would be predicted to make large contributions to the loss of body pigmentation in D. santomea. However, manipulating Abd-B expression in current-day D. santomea does not affect pigmentation. We attribute this epistatic interaction to four other genes within the D. santomea pigmentation network, three of which have evolved expression patterns that do not respond to Abd-B. Our results demonstrate how body plans may evolve through small evolutionary steps distributed throughout Hox-regulated networks. Polygenicity and epistasis may hinder efforts to identify genes and mechanisms underlying macroevolutionary traits.

PMID:
31257142
PMCID:
PMC6624651
[Available on 2020-07-08]
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.074
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